WW1 Planes
An encyclopediae of 1914-18 aircraft types


Aéroplanes Hanriot et Cie.

Aéroplanes Hanriot et Cie. called simply "Hanriot" was a French aircraft manufacturer started pioneer of aviation. René Hanriot in 1910 transformed is own private workshop into the Monoplans Hanriot Company Ltd. until 1916 and then became Hanriot-Dupont, which produced fighters and reconnaissance planes. The main manufacturing plant was at Bétheny (a suburb of Reims), Boulogne-Billancourt and later Carrières-sur-Seine and Bourges. The company changed hands and passed through structural changes until 1936. By then the company merged with Farman and was known "Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Centre" or SNCAC, merged into yet another public consortium after the second world war. His early monoplanes had popular boat-like fuselages which made the pride and joy of many gentlemen sportmen, and then during the war produced the awesome HD.1 and 2 fighters.

Hanriot HD.3
Hanriot Type V monoplane 1910

René Hanriot himself was a racer, driving motor boats and Darracq sportcars. Perhaps bored and thrilled by the "brand new thing" that was aviation, and had its first aircraft built in 1907, but was not able to take off and toyed with it until late 1909. This monoplane had a wire-braced wooden fuselage reminiscent of the Blériot XI, superseded similar monoplanes soon exhibited at the Brussels Exhibit in January 1910. These were slender wooden monocoque, boat-like fuselages powered by a 20 hp Darracq. With Louis Wagner, another Darracq pilot, he created a flying school at Bétheny (Reims). He used to test his ideas with models propelled by a tiny 2 kW (3 hp) Duthiel-Chalmers engine.

Hanriot HD.3
Early French aviator René Hanriot and his son Marcel in a Hanriot two-seater military monoplane 1911.

1910 as a great year of Hanriot that multiplied types and air shows in France and UK. His own 15-year-old became the youngest certified pilot, soon a proficient and daring competition flyer. René retired himself from competition to focus on design and attempted reach the military with his 1911 military two-seater. The model undertook French military trials, but failed because its fuselage was too slender, leaving the crew unprotected. It was too frail and underpowered for service in 1913 especially when pitted against Nieuport, Morane-Saulnier and Deperdussin monoplanes. However things changed when the company was able to attract Alfred Pagny, former Nieuport's chief designer. His 1912 model had clear Nieuport influence, but this model failed to attract orders at the 1912 competition. René Hanriot was soon brankrupt, and had to sold his assets to Louis Alfred Ponnier. From then on the company was reorganized as the Société de Construction de Machines pour la Navigation Aérienne or CMNA. Marcel Hanriot was called up for military service, at 18 and Pagny replaced his father at the head of the company. Marcel Hanriot flew as pilot in 1914 air force bombers.

Hanriot HD.3
Hanriot 2 seaters

The German advance in 1914 threatened the CMNA-Ponnier factories in Rheims, which soon was found trapped behind German lines. René Hanriot therefore founded Aéroplanes Hanriot et Cie in Levallois. Having to start from scratch, the company started as a subcontractor, manufacturing components, later licenced aircraft like the Sopwith 1 A.2 and Salmson 2 A.2. By 1915 Marcel Hanriot was badly wounded in a raid and was released from military service, back to his father's factory. Young engineer Emile Dupont joined in 1916. The first new model was the fighter HD.1 (For Hanriot-Dupont). The French air force rejected it for the more powerful SPAD VII. However the HD.1 gained orders by the Belgian and Italian air force, and soon became their favourite model. In fact success was such mith lore and more on orders than a brand new factory was setup in Boulogne-Billancourt. The HD.1 was also license-built by Macchi in Italy. By 1918, Hanriot had manufactured 5000 aircraft and 2000 worked in the Boulogne-Billancourt plant alone.

Hanriot HD.3
Hanriot HD.3

Compared to the HD.1, the following model were either small series or prototypes, until the end of the war. The HD.2 was only adopted by the US Military as a floatplane fighter, and the HD.3 was a two-seater with an observer/machine-gunner at the rear designed by Emile Dupont, proposed to the French Air Force, with 300 on order in 1918, only a third being delivered, in four versions. These models served with the Air Force and the Navy, but also with the Italian Aeronautica Militare.

Hanriot D.1
The 1912 Hanriot D.1 designed by Pagny (Nieuport) was later declined into the Ponnier D.III

All Hanriot model prior and during ww2 Models

Production models are in bold, numbers in brackets
  • Hanriot 1909 monoplane (2)
  • Hanriot I
  • Hanriot Type II
  • Hanriot III
  • Hanriot IV Hanriot 1911 military two-seater (Type IV)
  • Hanriot V Hanriot 1910 monoplane (Type V)
  • Hanriot VI Hanriot 1910 monoplane (Type VI)
  • Hanriot VII
  • Hanriot VIII Hanriot 100 ch monoplane (Type VII)
  • Hanriot IX
  • Hanriot-Pagny 1912 monoplane
  • Hanriot HD.1 1916 (1200)
  • Hanriot HD.2 1917 (16)
  • Hanriot HD.3/4 1917 (90)
  • Hanriot HD.5 1918 prototype
  • Hanriot HD.6 1918 prototype
  • Hanriot HD.7 1918 prototype
  • Hanriot HD.8 1918 prototype
  • Hanriot HD.9 1918 prototype
  • Hanriot HD.12 1918 prototype

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