The Magyar Aircraft Company
Lloyd (which will survived up to the Hapag-Lloyd company) was a short-lived aviation manufacturer which started production of reconnaissance/trainer biplanes, and until the end of 1917 delivered about 360 planes of the C-type, which nomenclature meant a two-seater reconnaissance and multi-purpose plane (so used also to patrol and do some light bombing and strafing attacks).
The Company was developed in the Transleithanian part of the realm, by the Magyar Lloyd Repülőgép és motorgyár Részvény-Társaság
or Hungarian Lloyd Aircraft and Motor Works, Incorporated. The Lloyd C.II and derivatives like the the C.III and C.IV were reconnaissance aircraft based on the 1913 C.I design, conventional wood and canvas two-seats biplanes with swept-back wings.
Lloyd designers Wizina and von Melczer created a reduced wingspan and wing area but increased weight for the C.II, and added a 0.315 in (8 mm) Schwarzlose machine gun placed on a semi-circular mount for the observer.
The Lloyd C.V was already an obsolescent reconnaissance plane in 1917.
Fifty of these were built by Lloyd plant of Aszód, and another fifty by WKF in Vienna. The C.III only differed by its 160 hp (120 kW) Austro-Daimler engine, and was produced by Lloyd and Wiener Karosserie und Flugzeugfabrik (WKF), with circa 50-60 planes. The C.IV was virtually identical to the C.III, however the C.V was a completely new animal, compact, heavier, and with an unusual wing configuration.
About 144 were delivered, 96 powered by an Austro-Daimler engine, and 48 by WKF with a Benz engine. They experienced a short service on the front line before being relegated to training or rear-lines patrols or reserve. They also served after the war with Poland, Hungary and Ukraine. The Polish ones called "Veneer" still flew by 1924.
The Lloyd FJ was an odd solution to fire above the propeller.
The C-Series was quite conventional but the company also designed some of the strangest-looking planes of the Great War. One was a fighter, called the FJ and 40.05, never past the prototype stage. It was very unorthodox as a fighter/recce biplane in 1915 but never went beyond testing and development.
The solution retained by the company was to provide an excellent field of view of the gunner, by raising him above the upper plane. It was a trade off, waiting for the machine gun synchronization to be invented. The FJ was not unique in its approach by placing the machine-gun above the main wing, but it was unique in that the pilot was raised to the same level, instead of just having to stand and fire, while having the steering locked between the legs. This system in theory allowed the pilot to correctly aim the plane and fire over the propeller.
The over-sized nose section filled the entire space between both wings, giving the machine gunner an excellent field of fire. The pilot however sat behind and his own forward field of vision was cluttered. The model FJ first flew in January 1916 and tested but needless to say, the Army rejected it outright. The Lloyd 40.05 was later converted as a single seat fighter, with a 0.315 in (8 mm) Schwarzlose machine gun in gun pod, but again the Kaiserliche und Königliche Luftfahrtruppen
also rejected it. With its very large frontal engine hood, it had a lot of drag and was too slow for a fighter, and unstable, while at the same time dangerous to fly, and especially to land.
The strange Luftkreuzer I was an answer to the Italian Caproni, with imaginative features which proved too much for its center of gravity...
This did not prevented the company to try this idea on yet another plane, this time after receiving in January 1916 a blueprint for a "flying cruiser" or Luftkreuzer I (type I, LK), later identified as Lloyd 40.08 and later the Luftkreuzer II (type II, LV) or 40.10. This was a response to the Italian Caproni bomber, driven by a powerful central pusher engine and two smaller tractor engines.
It was a triplane with unequal span wings, with a total area of 110 square meters. In addition to a fuselage placed between the mid-wings and upper wing, which add a vertical front machine gun post in the same fashion than the FJ fighter, a stream gondola for the bomber was placed between the mid-wings and lower wings. The upper front part was roomy enough for two gunners with an excellent observation field, and provided with an illuminator.
Completed in June 1916 the first skycruiser made engine testing at Aszód airfield which detected it was too heavy on the nose, with a too high gravity center and its landing gear proved too weak. A third wheel was added to the undercarriage, and the maiden flight took place in October 1916. Oberleutnant Antal Lany-Lanczendorfer was the test pilot but its not even known of it really took off.
The Fliegerarsenal later ordered the reduction of the bomb load, to save on the take-off weight and in December additional chassis rails were installed in the main undercarriage. In March 1917 Lloyd revision the airplane shown to the Army, but it was rejected and the 40.08 airframe was stored, and later in January 1918 moved to Cheb while the Sky cruiser program was terminated.
Lloyd would also test two experimental fighters, one was the FJ 40.15 (which could have been -if adopted- the Lloyd Dr.I) a triplane, with a very specific configuration. Indeed the mid and upper planes were almost connected to the fuselage, which was tall enough to allow the pilot to see above the upper wing, while the lower wing was placed right behind the undercarriage. On the latter Lloyd FJ 40.16, a biplane, the two wings were connected to the fuselage.
This also gave the pilot a much better forward field of view. But in that second prototype, the lower wing was placed way more at the rear and each one had its one pair of struts connected to the fuselage. Perhaps too unorthodox for the KuK Luft. both were also rejected.
- Lloyd C.I 1913 recce biplane (13)
- Lloyd C.II 1914 recce biplane (100)
- Lloyd C.III 1915 recce biplane (50)
- Lloyd FJ 1915 fighter biplane (1)
- Lloyd C.IV 1916 recce biplane (50)
- Lloyd LK I/II 1916 bomber triplane (2)
- Lloyd C.V 1917 recce biplane (144)
- Lloyd FJ 40.15 1917 fighter triplane (1)
- Lloyd FJ 40.16 1917 fighter biplane (1)
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